Australian workers’ daily tobacco smoking over time was examined by industry and occupation, to identify factors associated with high and/or low prevalence.Secondary analyses of 2007, 2010, 2013, and 2016 National Drug Strategy Household Surveys were undertaken (pooled n = 49 395). Frequency analyses informed subsequent modeling of select industries and occupations. Four logistic regression models estimated adjusted effects of demographics on daily smoking in industries with high (≥20%) and low (≤15%) daily smoking prevalence and occupations with high (≥20%) and low-moderate (<20%) daily smoking prevalence.The sample comprised 55.7% men, 34.1% 25–39-year-olds, 31.4% New South Wales residents, 70.1% metropolitan residents, 66.9% high socioeconomic status workers, and 70.6% with low psychological distress. Daily smoking prevalence differed by industry and occupation in 2007, generally decreasing between 2007 and 2016. In high prevalence industries, daily smoking was associated with male gender and age (25–39-year-olds) and in low prevalence industries with males and nonmetropolitan workers. In high prevalence occupations, daily smoking was associated with males, female nonmetropolitan workers, and age 25–39 years and in low-moderate prevalence occupations with nonmetropolitan workers and negatively associated with females aged 14–24 years. In all models, increased odds of daily smoking were associated with low socioeconomic status and very high psychological distress.Low socioeconomic status and very high psychological distress were risk factors for daily smoking regardless of industry, occupation, or high preexisting smoking prevalence. Targeted, as well as universal, interventions are required for workplaces and workers with greatest smoking vulnerability and least smoking cessation progress.Specific strategies are warranted for identified industries, occupations, and subgroups with increased odds of daily tobacco smoking. Industries and occupations with low-moderate smoking prevalence may confer workers some protection but are not without risk; some subgroups in these settings (eg, nonmetropolitan areas) had elevated daily smoking risk. Hence, the following are supported: (1) universal interventions directed at low socioeconomic workers and workers with very high psychological distress regardless of workplace; (2) interventions targeted at high prevalence industries; (3) cessation efforts targeted for young workers in high prevalence industries and occupations; and (4) focused interventions addressing specific needs of nonmetropolitan at-risk workers in low prevalence industries.smwork
Abstract Introduction The extant Alcohol's Harms to Others (AHTO) literature is largely comprised of reports from victims. We investigated AHTO from perpetrators' perspectives, including how harms were associated with individual characteristics, and alcohol quantities consumed during the perpetration incident. Methods Participants (N = 2932) were 14–19 years old, recruited primarily through social media and screened as risky drinkers. They completed face-to-face (n = 594) or self-administered (n = 2338) surveys. They self-reported whether during their last risky drinking session (LRDS) they had perpetrated any verbal abuse, physical abuse or property damage. A multinomial logistic regression examined whether nine factors were associated with perpetrating zero, one or 2+ categories of AHTO. Results Eleven percent (n = 323) reported perpetrating at least one form of AHTO (7.5% verbal, 1.9% physical and 4.6% property). Perpetration of AHTO at LRDS was uniquely associated with: younger age, male gender, experiences of childhood physical punishment, greater perpetration incident-specific drinking, concurrent illicit drug use, and less frequent use of safety strategies while drinking in the past 12 months. Controlling for the other variables, an increase of six Australian standard drinks (60 g of alcohol) increased the odds of perpetration by 15% [95% confidence interval (CI) adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.08, 1.23], and an increase of 15 Australian standard drinks increased the odds by 42% (95% CI AOR 1.20, 1.69). Discussion and Conclusions Individual characteristics, larger quantities of alcohol consumed, and a disinclination to practice harm reduction amplified risk of AHTO perpetration. This has implications for health promotion and risk prevention/reduction strategies.
The alcohol and other drugs (AOD) sector has shown strong progress with regard to recognition, professionalism and international programs of training and credentialing. Yet little is known regarding the professional development (PD) needs of AOD workers, nor how these needs differ across career stages. Australian AOD workers (N = 812) from the government and non-government sectors completed an online survey. Early career workers (≤3 years’ AOD experience) were more likely than mid/late career workers to be non-government employed and earn less than the national average and were less likely to be AOD qualified and have permanent employment. Early career workers were more likely to nominate a need for PD in advanced clinical skills (86.3%, p ≤ .05), dual diagnoses/mental health (72.6%, p ≤ .001) and service delivery/partnerships/teamwork (66.4%, p ≤ .01). These findings highlight an urgent need for advanced skill development to accord with increasing complexity in AOD presentations. High quality care is founded on a skilled and experienced workforce; addressing the ubiquitous PD barriers of time, cost and access is a crucial workforce development priority best addressed through reform to systems of organisational funding, professional accreditation and curriculum development in AOD specialist and generalist health areas.